SYMPTOMS -- DIAGNOSIS -- TRANSMISSION -- RISK -- CONSEQUENCES -- TREATMENT
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?
- High fever
- Severe headache
- Rash or purple patches on skin
- Light sensitivity
- Stiff neck
- Confusion and sleepiness
There may be a rash of tiny, red-purple spots caused by bleeding under the skin. These can occur anywhere on the body. The more symptoms, the higher the risk, so when these symptoms appear seek immediate medical attention.
HOW IS BACTERIAL MENINGITIS DIAGNOSED?
- Diagnosis is made by a medical provider and is usually based on a combination of clinical symptoms and laboratory results from spinal fluid and blood tests.
- Early diagnosis and treatment can greatly improve the likelihood of recovery.
HOW IS THE DISEASE TRANSMITTED?
The disease is transmitted when people exchange saliva (such as by kissing, or by sharing drinking containers, utensils, cigarettes, toothbrushes, etc.) or come in contact with respiratory or throat secretions.
HOW DO YOU INCREASE YOUR RISK OF GETTING BACTERIAL MENINGITIS?
- Exposure to saliva by sharing cigarettes, water bottles, eating utensils, food, kissing, etc.
- Living in close conditions (such as sharing a room/suite in a dorm or group home).
WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF THE DISEASE?
- Death (in 8 to 24 hours from perfectly well to dead
- Permanent brain damage
- Kidney failure
- Learning disability
- Hearing loss, blindness
- Limb damage (fingers, toes, arms, legs) that requires amputation
CAN THE DISEASE BE TREATED?
- Antibiotic treatment, if received early, can save lives and chances of recovery are increased. However, permanent disability or death can still occur.
- Vaccinations are available and should be considered for:
- Those living in close quarters
- College students under 30 years of age
- Vaccinations are effective against 4 of the 5 most common bacterial types that cause 70 percent of the disease in the U.S. (but does not protect against all types of meningitis).
- Vaccinations take 10 days to become effective, with protection lasting 5 years.
- The cost of vaccine varies, so check with your health care provider.
- Vaccination is very safe — the most common side effects are redness and minor pain at injection site for up to two days.